Intel has announced a significant advance for its neuromorphic research processor, named Codehi. The company has now extended its implementation of Loihi to 64 processors, allowing it to create a system with over 8 million neurons (8.3 million). This new configuration (codenamed Pohoiki Beach) delivers 1000 times better performance than conventional processors in applications such as sparse coding, graph search, and constraint satisfaction problems. Intel says the new Pohoiki range offers 10,000 times more energy efficiency than conventional processor architectures in this type of test.
Neuromorphic Computing is a subset of the computer that attempts to imitate the architecture of the brain with the help of modern technological analogues. Instead of implementing a typical CPU clock, for example. Loihi is based on a peaked neural network architecture. The basic Loihi processor contains 128 neuromorphic cores, three Lakefield processor cores (Intel Quark) and an off-chip communications network. Theoretically, Loihi can handle up to 4,096 on-chip cores and 16,384 chips, although Intel has announced that it does not intend to market a design of this size.
"Thanks to the Loihi chip, we were able to demonstrate a power consumption 109 times lower than that of a real-time graphics processor, and a power consumption 5 times lower than that of an inference material. IoT specialized, "said Chris Eliasmith. CEO of Applied Brain Research and Professor at the University of Waterloo. "Even better, while the network is multiplied by 50, Loihi retains performance results in real time and uses 30% more power, while the IoT hardware consumes 500% more power and is no longer in time. real."
The implementation of Pohoiki Beach is not the largest deployment planned for the neuromorphic chip. Intel announces its intention to roll out an even larger concept, dubbed Pohoiki Springs, which will offer "unprecedented levels of performance and efficiency for enhanced neuromorphic workloads."
We covered the advances and research in neuromorphic computing for several years at ET. The work done on these processors is closely related to the work done in AI and the machine intelligence in general, but it's not just about how to perform AI / ML workloads. on existing chips. The ultimate goal is to build processors closer to the human brain.
One of the quirks of computing is that the analogies between the functioning of the human brain and the operation of computers are widespread. Human brains and conventional computers do not overlap very little on their functioning. Transistors are not equivalent to neurons and the pulsed neural network that Loihi uses to transmit information about his own processor cores is intended to be closer to biological processes that humans and other animals use than traditional silicon.
Projects like this one have several long-term research goals, but one of the most fundamental is to better understand how the brain works to replicate some of their energy efficiency. The human brain operates at around 20W. The Exascale supercomputer, considered the minimum for advanced neural simulation of anything more complex than an earthworm, should consume megawatts of power per supercomputer. The difference between these numbers explains why we are primarily interested in the long-term energy efficiency and computing potential of the brain. Architectures such as Loihi are not just an effort to write programs that mimic what humans can do. the goal is to copy aspects of our neurology as well. This makes their progress a little more interesting.
Background image: Tim Herman / Intel Corporation
But SpaceX's ambitions seemed to suffer a major setback in April when its Crew Dragon spacecraft exploded during tests. NASA and SpaceX have spent the last three months investigating "the anomaly"; Although the investigation is ongoing, the company announced earlier today that it had identified the cause of the disaster.
According to Hans Koenigsmann, vice president of reliability of the construction and reliability of the SpaceX flight, the explosion was probably due to a component leak. During the test, a portion of the oxidant that contributes to the combustion of the rocket fuel sank at high speed into the pressure tube, resulting in an explosion. To prevent this from happening in the future, SpaceX has isolated these systems and modified the types of valves controlling the oxidizer flow. The company says this will "fully mitigate the risk".
Before today, SpaceX and NASA had kept control of the investigation. In fact, the only reason for the explosion came when Craig Bailey, photographer for Florida today, was being fired to compete near the SpaceX test center. Bailey capture a large plume of bright orange smoke coming out of the facility, and a video later leaked by an employee confirmed the catastrophic explosion.
According to Koenigsmann, the explosion occurred during a test of the Crew Dragon's flight dropping system, which is used to drop the rocket capsule in case of a problem during the flight. launch. The Crew Dragon capsule is equipped with 20 small rocket engines: 12 to maneuver the craft in space and eight for emergencies on the launch pad. The Dragon capsule exploded just half a second before the launch of the thrusters.
NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine said last week that his agency and SpaceX could have been more open to the disaster. "Communication with NASA was good," said Bridenstine. tweeted the Saturday. "Communication with the public (taxpayers) was not." said that a new process is in place to "disseminate as much information as possible to the public as quickly as possible", within two hours "of any future anomalies.
All things considered, the explosion represented a relatively minor setback for SpaceX's commercial crew program. Obtaining certification for the launch of NASA astronauts is a long process that SpaceX has been pursuing for years. In March, the company made one of its last important milestones by launching an unprepared capsular capsule at the ISS in order to demonstrate its ability to dock autonomously with the station and return to Earth in totality. security. It was the same capsule that had been destroyed during the explosion the following month.
The company has several Dragon capsules in production and eleven ground tests are completed. The next step is to perform a flight dropping test. This will involve dropping the capsule of a Falcon 9 rocket into flight. Koenigsmann did not specify when I was waiting for this test, but if all goes well, SpaceX expects to launch two NASA astronauts into the ISS as early as mid-November . Koenigsmann says he is "rather optimistic" that the company will be able to launch before the end of the year, but that the goal has become "more and more difficult".
SpaceX is now neck and neck with Boeing, which plans to make the first unarmed launch of its Starliner spacecraft on the ISS in September and a crew launch to the space station by the end of November. NASA has already selected the first four astronauts to participate in these crewed missions. These are private astronauts who are beginning to realize. Last month, billionaire hotelier Robert Bigelow announced that his space company had bought four flights to the ISS aboard a SpaceX Crew Dragon. sell tickets for $ 52 million. But as long as SpaceX can not convince NASA that its craft is safe for astronauts, the only thing that will be launched in space is more expensive.
. (SpaceTransport tags) SpaceX (t) space exploration (t) International Space Station (t) spacecraft (t) rockets
Humans tend to think that they pretty much control the functioning of the physical world, but things become unspeakably small on a small scale. Particles are not always particles, and sometimes these particles (or waves) behave in a bizarre and counter-intuitive way. Quantum entanglement is one of the strangest aspects of physics, and scientists at the University of Glasgow are coming captured the first picture demonstrating the effect.
When two particles or molecules entangle at a quantum level, they share one or more properties such as spin, polarization or momentum. This effect persists even if you move one of the entangled objects away from the other. Einstein in turn called the entanglement "spooky action at a distance". Einstein felt that the existence of entanglement meant that there were gaping holes in the theory of quantum mechanics.
Scientists have successfully demonstrated quantum entanglement with photos, electrons, molecules of different sizes and even very small diamonds. The Glasgow University study is the first to capture visual evidence of entanglement. The experiment used photons in entangled pairs and measured the phase of the particles – this is what is called a Bell entanglement.
The team produced photons with an ultraviolet laser, crossing a crystal that entangled some of the photos. A beam splitter turned the beam into two equal "arms," with some of the entangled photos taking different paths. Since they were entangled, they continued to share the same phase even after being separated.
One of these photons crosses a liquid crystal material that makes it pass through four phase transitions (0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees). The team used a very sensitive camera to capture images of the entangled photon that had not passed through the filter. However, he showed the same phase transitions as his partner. The image above shows the entangled pair at a 45 degree phase.
Scientists believe that quantum entanglement could have applications in quantum computing, data transmission and even teleportation. For this to work, we need to study in more detail the entanglement. The University of Glasgow experience could pave the way for new types of imagery that help us cope with this spooky action from a distance.
Ironically, what is arguably the most revolutionary part of Einstein's legacy rarely attracts attention. He has none of Gravitational wave splash, the shoot black holes or even the charm of quarks. But, hidden behind the curtain of these exotic phenomena, one finds an idea of a deceptive simplicity that pulls the levers, shows how the pieces come together and illuminates the way to go.
The idea is: some changes do not change anything. The most fundamental aspects of nature remain the same even if they seem to change shape unexpectedly. Einstein's 1905 articles on relativity led to the unquestionable conclusion, for example, that the relationship between energy and mass is invariant, even though energy and mass themselves can take very strong forms. different. Solar energy arrives on Earth and becomes a mass in the form of green leaves, creating food that we can eat and use as fuel for reflection. ("What is our mind: what are these conscious atoms?", Asked the lamented Richard Feynman. "The potatoes of last week!") It's the meaning of E = mc2. The "c"Represents the speed of light, a very large number, so that it does not take much material to produce a huge amount of energy; In fact, the sun transforms millions of tons of mass into energy every second.
This endless transformation of matter into energy (and vice versa) feeds the cosmos, matter and life. Yet the energy-matter content of the universe never changes. It's strange but true: the material and the energy themselves are less fundamental than their underlying relationships.
We tend to think about things, not relationships, as the heart of reality. But most often, the opposite is true. "This is not the stuff," said the physicist at Brown University Stephon Alexander.
The same is true, Einstein showed, for "things" like space and time, seemingly stable and immutable aspects of nature; in truth, it is the relation between space and time which remains always the same, even if space contracts and time expands. Like energy and matter, space and time are mutable manifestations of deeper and unshakable foundations: things that never change, no matter what happens.
"Einstein's profound vision was that space and time are essentially built by relationships between things that happen," said the physicist. Robbert Dijkgraaf, director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where Einstein spent his last years.
The relationship that mattered most to Einstein's legacy was symmetry. Scientists often describe symmetries as changes that change nothing, differences that make no difference, variations that leave deep relationships invariant. Examples are easy to find in everyday life. You can rotate the snowflake 60 degrees and the result will be the same. You can change places on a scale and not disturb the balance. More complex symmetries led physicists to discover everything from neutrinos to quarks – they even led to Einstein's discovery that gravitation is the curvature of space-time, which, we know, can fold back on itself and sneak into black holes.
In recent decades, some physicists have begun to wonder if symmetry is still as productive as it is used. The new particles predicted by symmetry-based theories did not appear in the expected experiments, and the detected Higgs boson was too light to fit into a known symmetric pattern. Symmetry has not yet helped explain why the gravity is so low, why the energy of the vacuum is so low or why the dark matter remains transparent.
"In particle physics, there was this prejudice that symmetry is the basis of our description of nature," said the physicist. Justin Khoury from the University of Pennsylvania. "This idea has been extremely powerful, but who knows, maybe we really have to give up those precious and valuable principles that have worked so well, so it's a very interesting time right now."
Einstein did not think of invariance or symmetry when he wrote his first articles on relativity in 1905, but historians speculate that his isolation from the physics community during his employment at the University of New York was not the same. Swiss Patent Office may have helped to understand the unnecessary pitfalls taken for granted.
Like other physicists of his time, Einstein reflected on several seemingly unrelated puzzles. James Clerk Maxwell's equations revealing the intimate connection between electric and magnetic fields were very different depending on the frames of reference, whether the observer was moving or at rest. Moreover, the speed with which electromagnetic fields propagate in space corresponds almost exactly to the speed of light measured by experiments, a speed that has not changed. An observer might run towards or away from the light, and the speed did not vary.
Einstein related the points: the speed of light was a measurable manifestation of the symmetrical relationship between electric fields and magnetic fields – a concept more fundamental than the space itself. The light needed nothing to pass because it was moving electromagnetic fields. The concept of "rest" – the static "empty space" invented by Isaac Newton – was useless and foolish. There was no "here" or "now" universal: events could appear simultaneously to one observer, but not to another, and both perspectives would be correct.
The pursuit of a light beam produced another curious effect, the subject of Einstein's second article on relativity: "Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?" " The answer was yes. The faster you chase, the harder it is to go faster. Resistance to change becomes infinite at the speed of light. Since this resistance is the inertia and the inertia is a mass measurement, the energy of the movement is transformed into mass. "There is no essential distinction between mass and energy," writes Einstein.
It took several years for Einstein to accept that space and time are inextricably intertwined threads of a single space-time fabric, impossible to unravel. "He did not think in a totally unified way in the space-time", said David Kaiser, physicist and historian of science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A unified space-time is a difficult concept to understand. But it starts to make sense if we think about the true meaning of "speed." The speed of light, like all speed, is a relation-distance traveled over time. But the speed of light is special because it can not change; your laser beam will not advance faster simply because it was fired from a high speed satellite. Measurements of distance and time must therefore change, depending on the state of motion, resulting in effects called "contraction of space" and "dilation of time". The invariant is: no matter how fast two people move relative to each other. they always measure the same "space-time interval". Sitting at your desk, you barely go through time. A cosmic ray flies over vast distances almost at the speed of light but does not go through time and remains young. Relationships are invariant, no matter how you change your situation.
Einstein's special theory of relativity, which first appeared, is "special" because it only applies to stable and immutable movement across space -time, movement that does not accelerate, like the movement of an object falling towards the Earth. Einstein worried that his theory did not include gravity and his struggle to incorporate symmetry place at the heart of his thinking. "By the time he becomes familiar with general relativity, he is much more invested in this notion of invariants and spacetime intervals that should be the same for all observers," said Kaiser.
More precisely, Einstein was intrigued by a difference that made no difference, a symmetry that made no sense. It is always amazing to place a wad of crumpled paper and a set of heavy keys side by side to find that, one way or another, they touched the ground almost simultaneously as Galileo demonstrated ( at least apocryphal) by dropping light and heavy balls from the tower. in Pisa. If the force of gravity depends on the mass, the more massive an object is, the faster it has to fall. Inexplicably, this is not the case.
The key idea came to Einstein in one of his famous thought experiments. I imagined a man falling from a building. The man would float as happily as an astronaut in the space, until the ground is in his way. When Einstein realized that a person who fell freely would feel weightless, I described this discovery as the happiest of thoughts in his life. It took some time to understand the mathematical details of general relativity, but the enigma of gravity was solved once it showed that gravity is the curvature of space-time itself, created by huge objects like the Earth. Nearby "falling" objects, such as Einstein's imaginary man or Galileo's bullets, simply follow the spatio-temporal path that has been traced to them.
When the general relativity was published for the first time, 10 years after the special version, a problem appeared: it appeared that the energy could not be kept in a sharply curved space-time. It was common knowledge that some quantities in the wild were still preserved: the amount of energy (including energy in the form of mass), the amount of electric charge, the amount of movement. In a remarkable achievement in mathematical alchemy, the German mathematician Emmy Noether has proved that each of these conserved quantities is associated with a particular symmetry, a change that changes nothing.
Noether showed that the symmetries of general relativity – its invariance in transformations between different frames of reference – ensure that energy is always conserved. The theory of Einstein was saved. Noether and symmetry have since occupied a central place in physics.
Post Einstein, the attraction of symmetry has only become more powerful. Paul Dirac, trying to make quantum mechanics consistent with the special relativity requirements of symmetry, found a minus sign in an equation suggesting that "antimatter" must exist to balance books. He does. Shortly after, Wolfgang Pauli, trying to account for the energy that seemed to disappear during the decay of radioactive particles, speculated that the missing energy might have been washed away by an unknown and elusive particle. It was, and this particle is the neutrino.
From the 1950s, invariances took on a life of their own, becoming more and more abstract, "gushing", as Kaiser put it, from the symmetries of space-time. These new symmetries, called "gauge invariances," have become extremely productive, "providing the world," said Kaiser, demanding the existence of everything from W and Z bosons to gluons. "Because we believe that symmetry is fundamental, we must protect it at all costs, we invent new things," he said. The gauge symmetry "dictates the other ingredients you need to present." It is about the same type of symmetry that tells us that an invariant triangle under 120 degree rotations must have three equal sides.
Gauge symmetries describe the internal structure of the particle system that populates our world. They indicate all the ways physicists can modify, rotate, distort and modify their equations without changing anything important. "Symmetry tells you how many ways you can reverse things, change the way forces work, and that does not change anything," said Alexander. The result is a look at the hidden scaffolding that supports the basic ingredients of nature.
The abstract of gauge symmetries causes some discomfort in some people. "You do not see all the device, you only see the result," Dijkgraaf said. "I think that with gauge symmetries, there is still a lot of confusion."
To complicate the problem, gauge symmetries produce a multitude of ways to describe a single physical system – a redundancy, like the physicist Mark Trodden from the University of Pennsylvania says so. This property of the gauge theories, explained Trodden, makes the calculations "extremely complicated". Pages and pages of calculations lead to very simple answers. "And that makes you wonder: why? Where does all this complexity come in? And a possible answer to that question is this redundancy of description that gives you the symmetries."
Such internal complexity is the opposite of what symmetry normally offers: simplicity. With a repeating mosaic pattern, "just look a little and predict the rest," said Dijkgraaf. You do not need a law for energy conservation and another for a case where only one will do the business. The universe is symmetrical in that it is homogeneous on a large scale; he has no left nor right, neither high nor low. "If that was not the case, cosmology would be a big mess," Khoury said.
The biggest problem is that symmetry seems to be unable to answer some of the biggest questions in physics. Admittedly, symmetry told physicists where to look for both the Boson Higgs and gravitational waves-Two capital discoveries of the last decade. At the same time, symmetry-based reasoning predicted to have a multitude of things that have not been revealed in any experiment, including "supersymmetric" particles that could have been used as dark matter missing from the cosmos and explained why gravity is so low compared to electromagnetism and all other forces.
In some cases, the symmetries present in the underlying laws of nature seem to be broken in reality. For example, when energy freezes in matter via the good old E = mc2this results in equal amounts of matter and antimatter – symmetry. But if the energy of the Big Bang created matter and antimatter in equal quantities, they would have had to annihilate, leaving no trace of matter. Yet we are there.
The perfect symmetry that should have existed in the early warm moments of the universe was somehow destroyed as it cooled, just like a perfectly symmetrical water drop a part of its symmetry when it freezes in the ice. (A snowflake can look the same in six different directions, but a melted snowflake looks the same in all directions.)
"Everyone is interested in spontaneously broken symmetries," Trodden said. "The law of nature obeys symmetry, but the solution that interests you does not."
But what has broken the symmetry between matter and antimatter?
No one would be surprised if, today, physics came up against unnecessary scaffolding, much like the notion of "empty space" that had mishandled people before Einstein. Some people think that today's errors in orientation may even be related to the obsession with symmetry, at least as it is currently understood.
Many physicists have explored an idea closely related to symmetry called "duality". Dualities are not new in physics. The wave-particle duality – the fact of describing the same quantum system as a wave or a particle, depending on the context – exists since the beginning of quantum mechanics. But the new dualities have revealed surprising relationships: for example, a world in three dimensions without gravity can be mathematically equivalent, or double, in a four-dimensional world with gravity.
If descriptions of worlds with different numbers of spatial dimensions are equivalent, then "a dimension in a sense can be considered fungible," said Trodden.
"These dualities include elements – the number of dimensions – that we consider invariant," said Dijkgraaf, "but they are not." The existence of two equivalent descriptions with all the calculations that follow raises "a very deep, almost philosophical point: does it have an invariant way of describing physical reality?"
No one is giving up symmetry anytime soon, partly because it is proven so powerful and also because it means giving up, for many physicists, abandoning the "nativity" – the only one. idea that the universe must be exactly as it is right, the furniture arranged so impeccably that you could not imagine it otherwise.
Clearly, certain aspects of nature, like the orbits of planets, are the result of history and accident, not of symmetry. Biological evolution is a combination of known mechanisms and chance. Perhaps Max Born was right when I responded to Einstein's persistent objection that "God does not play says" emphasizing that "nature, as well as human affairs, seem to be subject to necessity and accidents. "
Some aspects of physics will have to remain intact, such as causality. "The effects can not precede the causes," said Alexander. The others will almost certainly not do it.
One aspect that will surely not play a key role in the future is the speed of light, which founded Einstein's work. The smooth fabric of space-time woven by Einstein a century ago inevitably tears into black holes and at the time of the Big Bang. "The speed of light can not stay constant if space-time collapses," said Alexander. "If space-time sinks, what is invariant?"
Some dualities suggest that space-time emerges from something else fundamental, the strangest relationship of all: what Einstein called the "spooky connections" between entangled quantum particles. Many researchers believe that these long-distance links sew the space-time together. As Kaiser has said, "it is hoped that a kind of space-time continuum would appear as a side effect of more fundamental relationships, including entanglement relationships". In this case, he said, a classic and continuous space-time would be "Illusion."
The high bar for new ideas is that they can not contradict ever-reliable theories such as quantum mechanics and relativity, including the symmetries that support them.
Einstein has already compared the construction of a new theory to mountaineering. From a superior point of view, you can see the old theory still in effect, but it has been modified and you can see where it lies in the larger and more inclusive landscape. Instead of thinking, as Feynman suggested, with the plans of last week, future thinkers might consider physics using information encoded in quantum entanglements, which weave space-time to grow potatoes.
Original story reprinted with the permission of Quanta Magazine, an independent editorial publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to improve public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics, physical sciences and life sciences.
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The conventional wisdom is that most major galaxies harbor supermassive black holes to their centers. Scientists also believe that only so-called "active" galaxies should have a visible accumulation of matter, but that The Hubble Space Telescope has found a around a black hole with an unusually low brightness. This galaxy may be a bit of a departure from the rules, but it offers an opportunity to study how the theory of relativity applies in the real world.
NGC 3147 is a large spiral galaxy a little smaller than our own Milky Way. It's about 120 million light-years away – you've probably seen some pictures because it's pretty amazing. Enabling galaxies like quasars are easy to spot. The material that falls there produces emissions over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and the accretion disks are well visible. Everyone thought that NGC 3147 was way too dark to have its own record, but a new analysis from an international team suggests the opposite.
Hubble has collected data on the central black hole of NGC 3147, which is about 250 million times larger than our sun. The object turns out to have a thin disc of material similar to the one you would find around an active galactic core. Hubble's observations show that the disk rotates at about 10% of the speed of light. Researcher Stefano Bianchi of the Università degli Studi in Rome Tre in Italy explains that this discovery indicates that current models of low-light galaxies have "clearly failed".
This discovery could have significant effects on how we model galaxies and black holes, but it could also provide a better understanding of the physics underlying supermassive objects. The fast disk associated with the apparent low luminosity of the NGC 3147 could test both general relativity and special relativity.
General relativity deals with the mechanisms of gravity in the universe and the special relativity describes the relationship between space and time. Since NGC 3147 is weaker than a typical active galaxy, the accretion disk that surrounds it can be made much better. The disc sits inside the powerful gravity field of the black hole where scientists can study the impact of light on it.
According to the findings of NGC 3147, astronomers could now go in search of other weakly active galaxies. Some may even be closer to Earth where we can make even more accurate measurements to test Einstein's theories.
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Dogs are play a big role in human cancer research
Cancer in older dogs is very common, but it turns out that treatments for your furry friend also have implications for people. Many types of cancer dogs resemble those found in humans. Through collaboration between Animal Medicine and Human Medicine as part of Obama's Cancer Moonshot initiative, researchers are investigating treatments that could save the lives of dogs and people.
A Phishing scam of Amazon Strike just in time for the First Day
With the first day of Amazon around the corner, the security company Mcafee detailed phishing this allows hackers to send an email that resembles that of Amazon, with a PDF attachment that leads anyone who clicks on a website mimicking an Amazon login page. From there, the malicious site not only asks for the victim's name, but also their birthday, home address, credit card information, and social security number. Remember: always check who your emails come from and do not open attachments unless you are sure it comes from someone you trust.
The FTC hit Facebook with a record $ 5 billion settlement
After months of negotiations, FTC reportedly fined Facebook a record $ 5 billion for his privacy violations If approved by the civilian division of the Department of Justice, it will be the first substantive sanction imposed on Facebook in the United States. But until then, important issues remain unresolved, for example if the FTC will personally hold Facebook's CEO, Mark Zuckerberg, and what kind of external control Facebook may have to follow.
The controversy surrounding voice assistants for smartphones has stoked its flames this week when a Belgian public broadcaster has had access to more than 1,000 Google Assistant records from a Google entrepreneur responsible for reviewing them. What are the providers listening to Google Assistant queries? Everything from requests for pornography to family arguments, medical discussions and conversations with children.
Scooters are in fashion these days, but what can you do if you do not want to share your scooter with someone else? Well, you can buy one just for you and the Boosted scooter is as attractive as possible.
How taming Slack for a more productive day of work.
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