In the published research, he explains in detail how scientists have managed to use a laser for modulating and transmitting wireless microwave signals. This opens the door to a WiFi broadbandsince between power used and the frequency bandwidthIt is very difficult to improve the speed of the current WiFi.
This study uses two previous investigations related to lasers. In the first, in 2017, engineers discovered that the terahertz frequencies could be generated using a infrared frequency comb quantum cascade laser, which converts electrical energy into electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectrum. With these ultrashort wavelengths, they have been able to move data hundreds of times faster than with current wireless devices. Subsequently, in 2018, a team of researchers discovered that those who used the same combs could be coded, transmitted and received data.
Researchers have now successfully extracted and transmitted wireless signals from laser-frequency combs. Thanks to them, it is possible to transmit signals at several frequencies at once, because conventional lasers can only transmit one frequency. The combination of frequencies in this comb form is what emits radiation from the radio spectrum.
All this work was theoretical up to now, but aroused interest once they managed to create a device capable of send and receive information based on him. To do this, they created a dipole antenna that allowed them to transmit information through a frequency comb modulating information and transmitting it in all directions in the form of microwaves. From there, they only needed a receiver, for which they used a horn antenna. The first data transmission was Volare's song, by Dean Martin.
The creation of a device capable of working with this technology is a great promise of wireless communication. Although terahertz communication is still very distant, this type of progress helps to channel the creation of commercial technologies that we can use on a daily basis.
The team has at the moment applied for a patent on this system and is already exploring marketing opportunities. Harvard has scientists studying the laser data transmission for more than 10 years. This type of technology is viable for transmitting data, and even Facebook and Google have experienced it.
Current lithium batteries have several problems: increase in densitythat is, capacity in the same space is currently at the limit of its design. To this we must add that they have a lifetime that could be longer, or that if they are damaged or perforated, they burn in flames on contact with oxygen.
As a result, scientists around the world are studying semiconductor batteries to solve all these problems. A group of researchers at Columbia University's Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences discovered a method for stabilizing solid electrolytes in liquid metal. For that, they used a nanometric coverage of boron nitride, which makes it possible to create batteries with a capacity 2 to 10 times greater than a normal lithium battery, which recharge 6 times faster, have up to five times more charge cycles and are not flammable.
Semiconductor batteries still have a problem: the dendrites. These formations are a kind of crystallizations of lithium in the form of metal that start at the anode and extend throughout the battery. This happens with each cycle of loading and unloading. As more dendrites appear on the battery, lower is the capacity of the batteryFinally, the separator between the anode and the cathode can be punctured, causing a short circuit that destroys the battery and even generates a fire.
In today's lithium batteries, this dendrite problem is solved by using liquid electrolytes as a conductive material instead of solid metal, which would increase the density. However, this liquid is the flammable part of batteries that is so dangerous that it can burn if there is a lot of pressure, heat, current or perforation.
Sometimes graphite is also used, and one has also tried using graphene or silicon alloys. In general, it is possible to reduce the formation of dendrites controlling the flow of ions, but in return for having a lower capacity and density, in addition to making the batteries flammable.
The researchers' solution is therefore to put a nanometric layer of 5 to 10 nanometers boron nitride isolate the lithium metal from the conductor. By isolating the two layers, you get avoid the accumulation of dendrites and short circuits without the battery density having to decrease. This layer is also slightly porous and also contains a small amount of liquid electrolyte.
Researchers are currently studying the application of these batteries, and one of them could be in mobile phones because of its small size. Despite this, there are still a few years before researchers manage to create semiconductor batteries inserted into the devices we buy.
The society behind this battery is Climate change technologies, also called CCT energy storage. The battery, which they named TED (thermal energy device), is a modular storage system to store the energy generated by any type of source, whether solar, wind or fossil. This is very useful because solar energy can not be used at night and it is necessary to have batteries to be able to store and use it during these hours.
The key to this battery is that it uses heat for heat and melt silicon It is stored inside by means of an isolated camera. Each of these batteries can store 1.2 MWh of energy, with a compact design that can be placed in a transport container of 6 meters.
So, in this size, he is able to store 12 times more energy than a lead-acid battery, and around 6 times more than a lithium. In addition, it is very easily scalable and is therefore ideally suited for storing excess energy generated by renewable energy systems ranging from 5 kilowatts to virtually any capacity. They are also useful against power outages because they can stay active for 48 hours in a row.
Another interesting part of the thermal batteries they can be loaded and unloaded at the same time, in addition to having virtually no maintenance. Its durability far exceeds that of lithium batteries, where they reach up to 3000 charge cycles without degradationand they only go down to 80% with 5,000 charge cycles. In the case of lithium, it is normally reached Load capacity of 80% when they take about 700 cycles. With this, each The battery can last up to 20 years.
The key to this durability is the material used. Molten silicon, used in thermal batteries, requires only a phase transition by heat application. In addition, when the end of life is reached, the battery is discharged. 100% recyclable, compared to lithium and its associated problems. A shutdown system can also be installed in the face of earthquakes, where it can be disabled. It is not advisable that there is silicon to 1400 degrees Celsius it can spread.
In addition, the key that will facilitate the implementation of these batteries is that its cost is between 60 and 80% of the price paid for a battery such as the Tesla Powerpack, in addition to occupy less space.
The company has already signed agreements with companies such as Stillmark Telecommunications or the group MIBA who will be able to manufacture and market the batteries in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands, in addition to other European countries which will soon be added to the list and are currently in the negotiation phase.
The first business units will be manufactured during this second quarter with 10 units and once they start to gain market sales, they will increase their production to create more than 100 MW installations. here two years with more than 200 units. Although these batteries are better suited to power grids, they will not reach mobile phones or cars for all the necessary associated technologies, such as container, insulation, heat generation engine, etc.