At this five-hour event, 100 participants from start-ups, venture capitalists and technology giants drank semi-conductor cocktails and detailed explanations of how sand is injected into silicon chips. It was a celebration of how exponential upgrades of the chip industry have propelled advances in technology and society over the past 50 years – and an argument that the party does not Is not finished.
"This is going to continue," said Jim Keller, a semiconductor rock star who had joined Intel last year as senior vice president of silicon engineering, and a cohort of engineers. event. "Moore's Law is relentless," I added, citing the statement of 54-year-old Intel's former CEO that the number of transistors that can be installed on a chip Silicon would double according to a predictable schedule.
Sunday's event was intended to make it clear that Intel, historically strong and troubled, could still generate tremendous growth in computing power, as the industry has shown over the past 50 years. Keller, a veteran of the chip industry whose silicon creations have helped to alter the trajectories of Apple and You're here, joined Intel at the end of a difficult decade. He missed the market by providing chips for mobile devices. These pocket gadgets have compromised PC sales on which Intel had a de facto monopoly.
Intel still dominates the server chip market that powers cloud computing, but its last two generations of chip technology have arrived late. In April, the company announced that it was going give up work on chips for 5G wireless devices, away from the next big wave in mobile technologyand an agreement that placed Intel modems in some iPhones. The following month, Intel told investors that it expected profit margins to deteriorate over the next two years.
These concerns were not much discussed Sunday, where the focus was on the history and future of technology. Intel staff stood near microscopes where the curious could observe the tiny sculptures that are modern transistors, able to tilt electric currents billions of times per second. In addition to Keller, speakers included Raja Koduri, chief architect of Intel, and Mike Mayberry, the company's technical director. Koduri said helped recruit KellerI knew since their collaboration with Apple and Intel last year.
The history of computer science is related to the laws of Intel and Moore. For decades, Intel has kept pace by doubling its capabilities by inventing new materials, processing techniques, and designs for smaller and smaller transistors. More recently, the pace has slowed and the future of Intel and the computer has appeared less closely related.
The company's latest generation of technology on the market, known as 14 nanometers, was about a year behind when it was fully launched in 2015. The next generation, 10 nanometers, also missed its initial schedule. Taiwan's TSMC already offers approximately the same technology, especially in chips inside the iPhone.
In 2016, a biannual report that had long been a commitment by industry to uphold Moore's Law was in place and was moving to other ways of defining progress. Analysts and average-Even some CEO of Semiconductors-Have written Moore's law obituary in multiple ways
Keller is not in agreement. "The working title of this lecture was" Moore's Law is not dead but if you think you are stupid, "" he said Sunday. partly on the redefinition of Moore's Law.
"I'm not pedantic about Moore's law talking about shrinking transistors – I'm interested in the technological trends, as well as the physics and metaphysics associated with it," he said. Keller. "Moore's Law is a collective illusion shared by millions of people."
Keller said on Sunday that Intel could sustain this illusion, but that smaller transistors would only be part of the process. Conventionally, I pointed out Intel's work on extreme ultraviolet lithography, which allows smaller features to be embedded in chips, and smaller transistor designs based on nano-scale wires that should arrive in the 2020s.
Keller also said that Intel should try other tactics, such as vertical construction, superposition of transistors or chips. I have stated that this approach would reduce energy consumption by reducing the distance between different parts of a chip. Keller said the use of nanowires and stacking of his team had allowed transistors to map 50 times as densely as possible with Intel's 10-nanometer generation technology. "Basically, it's already working," he said.
In January, Intel has introduced a new chip model called Lakefield, which stacks multiple chips on top of each other to integrate more computing power into a given space. The company is also part of a shift towards a new Lego-block approach for chip making, where modules called doublets are recombined to speed up development.
Does this mean that progress will be harder to obtain, less predictable and more expensive? Keller describes the future differently: "Colder and colder," he says.
Despite metaphysical reverie, Keller is a serious technical leader. You have used other notable names in major technological paradigm shifts.
At AMD in the early 2000sKeller has co-written the specification for an era of more powerful 64-bit processors. He then joined Apple, where I helped the company design its first mobile processors. This strategy has allowed Apple to keep the iPhone ahead of its competitors with features such as unlock the face. Before joining Intel, Keller led Tesla internal flea design operation support Elon Musk & # 39; s ambitions for autonomous cars.
Stacy Rasgon, a semiconductor analyst at Bernstein, said that Keller's track record suggests that it will have an impact at Intel. He also said that Intel 's problems, caused mainly by CEO Brian Krzanich, who resigned last year, are daunting. "Keller is right, it's possible to do incredible and extraordinary things, but it takes a business case to do it," Rasgon said. This last part has become more complicated.
Competitors like TSMC, the Taiwanese manufacturer of chips for customers like Apple, and AMD, which compete with Intel's server chips, have been more agile and more efficient in terms of R & D spending, explains Rasgon. Intel has acquired several companies that manufacture specialized chips to run AI software, but faces competition from Nvidia, whose GPUs have become an AI standard; Google and Amazon They also design their own artificial intelligence chips for use in their data centers.
Keller did not work at Intel long enough to leave a visible mark in the company's response to these challenges. It takes years to research, design and produce new chip technology. When asked how the production of Intel could change under his impetus and his interpretation of Moore's law, his answer is vague. "Make faster computers," says Keller. "That's what I want to do."
Rasgon says that a true assessment of its impact should be possible in about five years. "It takes time," he says.
. (IntelTool tags) Intel chips (t) (t) Semiconductors (t) Moore's Law</pre></pre>
Of course, investors, always very versatile, could easily fall in love with Slack. Slack still needs to generate profits and is facing competition from Microsoft's Discussion Service, Teams, included in Office 365, Microsoft's flagship offering in workplace productivity, as well as to its more competitive competitors. little ones like Flock and Mattermost.
But Slack's public listing followed two less successful but equally successful business-to-business IPOs, Zoom in Videoconferencing in April and Network and Security Company Fastly in May. Together, these IPOs suggest that even the consumer technology market is dominated by Apple, Amazon, Facebook and Google.
When Slack launched its chat application in 2013, its most direct competitor was HipChat, manufactured by Atlassian, which had a successful IPO in 2015. The use of Slack quickly surpassed the use of HipChat and Atlassian HipChat with shutters last year focus on other products. But he has also competed with many other workplace communication tools, from e-mail to social networking, to old intranets. The zoom goes hand in hand with Cisco's well-established WebEx. We quickly found a market despite the competition from Akamai. It is difficult to find similar examples among mainstream technologies, where new competitors tend to sell their products to large groups or to remain perpetual.
For example, Facebook has purchased Instagram and WhatsApp before one or the other of these applications represents a real challenge to Mark Zuckerberg's empire. In 2010, Facebook launched Check-In, which looked like Foursquare. The service did not work, but Foursquare has not ended up being a real rival on Facebook either. More recently, Facebook has added the Similar to Snapchat The stories contain information on Instagram and Lens's similar features to the traditional Facebook service. While online dating sites such as Tinder or Bumble are becoming a common way to connect, Facebook has been deployed dating features in some countries.
There are many mergers and acquisitions in the B2B market, partly driven by Google's cloud divisions and Amazon. But the apparent success of Slack, Zoom and Fastly shows that this is not the only option for companies in the technology sector of the company.
One of the features common to all three is their business model. None requires potential customers to go through a complex sales process to start using their products, or through a large sales team to sell these products. Slack and Zoom offer free versions that everyone can start using immediately. You only need to pay when you start to need a lot of users or advanced features. You can sign up for Fast with a credit card, not to mention a sales representative. This has facilitated the creation of buzz, especially with startups. Perhaps most importantly, the low barrier to entry allowed individual employees, or employee teams, to start using services, often in place of a product purchased by another person from their company.
Beyond the IPO system, other companies are using open source software to tackle the tech giants. Docker, for example, offers its free alternative to the traditional "virtual machine" software offered by VMware and Citrix, allowing developers and other technicians to experiment and build products with it, before paying for services. , support or proprietary software. . Similarly, cloud management software vendors such as Chef, Puppet and HashiCorp take companies like BMC with open source software.
Of course, the products and services of these companies must come to the point of appearing, that is to say that they will eventually pay to their bosses. Slack did this by making a workplace chat app that people actually liked to use, even though there were cheaper or better options on the market. HashiCorp and similar companies beat big players in the market. But they got their chance by speaking directly to people who use their technology, instead of purchasing managers.
Chinese technology companies such as search engine Baidu and social media platform Tencent block publications and pages relating to Tiananmen in order to comply with the country's authoritarian rules regarding the Internet. Some American companies are also doing their part. Apple and Microsoft censor information in China as a condition of access to the lucrative but circumscribed population of over 800 million Internet users.
For Microsoft, this means that the content that the government considers sensitive remains outside the Bing search results and its LinkedIn professional network site. Apple controls its app store differently in China and in other parts of the world, at the order of the government. The company said that it removes VPN applications that could be used to bypass the so-called "big Chinese firewall", which blocks access to many foreign sites. A tool launched in February from Greatfire.org, which monitors Chinese censorship, indicates that the tools and applications of anonymity on Tibet and Falun Gong available in the app store versions around the world do not appear in China.
The two US companies refused to discuss their policies in China. American and foreign human rights groups and lawmakers accuse them of helping to abolish their rights, declared essential in their national markets. "Following local laws is not a good excuse," says Charles Mok, a Hong Kong lawmaker informed by LinkedIn in 2014 That a post referring to Tiananmen's birthday be censored in China.
Online content related to Tiananmen is blocked throughout the year in China and, for decades, textbooks and public media have ignored and sanitized the events of 1989. Every year, signs announce that business and government monitor the web more strictly.
In May, the big firewall blocked access to all versions of Wikipedia. Last year, AFP announced that it had become impossible to send Someone 89.64 or 64.89 yuan via Tencent's dominant mail service, WeChat, apparently because these amounts could be read as coding the date of the birthday.
Apple may have also thought about the future. In April, the Hong Kong media reported That the company has removed songs referring to political issues of the Apple Music service in mainland China, including a song by Hong Kong star Jacky Cheung that refers to the Tiananmen protests. Apple declined to comment on these reports. US lawmakers, including Senator Marco Rubio (R-Florida), have described as "scandalous" the fact that Apple apparently complied with China's censorship regime.
Whatever your feelings about it, this scheme has gained increasing sophistication as the Internet has become more prevalent in China. In the past, companies used simple blacklists of prohibited words and teams of manual reviewers. These still play a role, but large companies such as Tencent now have a more powerful automation to identify which items to block.
Tencent's WeChat, which dominates mobile life in China, provides a practical example. Send a friend or a group the photo "Tank Man" of a protester holding only a plastic bag in front of the convoy of armored vehicles in Tiananmen Square, which may never happen. The censorship system built into the app can search for a blacklist of sensitive images, says Jeffrey Knockel, a researcher at the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto.
Knockel contributed to last year 's research that WeChat can also look inside images to check any text, for example in a single image, looking for sensitive content. The researchers have reversed the engineering of the application WeChat to discover this mechanism in an application section called Moments, where users can share publications with a wide circle of friends, a like Facebook. Image filtering has also shown some ability to detect prohibited images that have been modified or resized.
"Following local laws is not a good excuse."
Charles Mok, legislator of Hong Kong
Tencent's project has other similarities with Facebook. US company does not operate in China despite CEO Mark Zuckerberg is courting his leaders. But Facebook has also developed software that reads the text inside the imagesas part of efforts to stop hate speech. To Chinese and American social networks, automatic filters are far from perfect.
Knockel said the Chinese censorship system was less of an impermeable barrier than a "kluge", a patchwork of miserable systems built by companies that apparently aspired to do the minimum necessary to meet the government's expectations. "I think they want to implement it barely enough to have no problems," I said.
Nevertheless, there is evidence that kluge works. American teens are warned that the Internet never forgets juvenile indiscretions. China's censorship experience suggests that if you force the Internet to forget, a society may develop amnesia.
In December, researchers from Peking University and Harvard University published the results of a controlled experience 900 Chinese students received an unfiltered connection with the outside world. Those who had the chance to bypass censorship showed little interest in blocked websites and information.
"This is not the case that people are thirsty for forbidden content," says Jennifer Pan, a Stanford professor who studies the digital strategies of autocratic regimes. "It could be said that the system works, that people do not know what they are missing and do not require." This helps that the vast Chinese Internet sector offers many content and services consistent with the laws of the government, she said.
Since taking office in 2012, Chinese President Xi Jinping has tightened control of the Communist Party over the country's economy, society and Internet. Restrictions on foreign and national media have increased and the United Nations says that one million Uyghur Muslims in northwestern China are currently being held in internment camps.
In 2014, Chris Meserole, a member of the Brookings Institution, announced the establishment of a unified Internet system dubbed "Cyberspace Internet Administration in China". According to him, the Xi regime considers the Internet as a tool for surveillance and repression as well as communication.
Apple and Microsoft must replace this regime to operate in China. Microsoft has been offering and censoring Bing's results in China since 2009 and has tightened censorship in 2016 with the acquisition of LinkedIn.
The service had entered China as a start-up in 2014, arguing in a blog article that while society "is fundamentally at odds with government censorship," staying out of China would prevent its citizens from "accessing" the economic opportunities, dreams and rights that matter most to them " .
Apple also said the Chinese government's censorship encouraged greater freedoms. In 2017, Cynthia Hogan, Corporate Policy Officer, written to two senators Apple's presence in China "helps promote greater openness and facilitates the free flow of ideas and information".
Charlie Smith, a pseudonym co-founder of Greatfire.org, which monitors Chinese censorship, said the US giants working with Chinese censors actually reinforced Xi's control regime. "Companies that have complied with surveillance and censorship in China have helped the authorities convince other foreign companies to do the same," he said.
Google admitted last year that it was testing a search engine, code name dragonflythat would respect Chinese censorship. The company had proposed censored searches in China until 2010, when it withdrew, fearing that the government would limit speech online too much. CEO Sundar Pichai told Congress in December that the company had "no plans" to launch such a project, but also left the door open to change.
The company offers a mobile gaming and translation application within China – services that are not subject to the same censorship obligations as research. When Dorian Lau, an Amnesty International researcher, implemented a paragraph describing the persecution of Uyghurs, Google's application treated the text without protest.
(tagsToTranslate) China (t) censorship (t) Internet (t) Microsoft (t) apple (t) LinkedIn
In recent years, the company best known for its eponymous city guide and its social media recording application, Swarm, has become a central location data for users, working with more than 150,000 partners, AccuWeather at Samsung to TripAdvisor, to deepen its understanding of exactly where the phones go and what it says of their owners.
In a press release, Foursquare stated that it was a "measured audience of over 100 million monthly devices". And his understanding of users' real-time back and forth is becoming more and more accurate. Friday, Foursquare said he had acquired Placed, which determines the effectiveness of certain advertising campaigns by tracking users' movements in real time, from Snapchat's parent Snap. Placed tracks the real-time location of nearly 6 million active users per month through apps that pay users or offer other types of rewards in exchange for access to their data, by the Wall Street Journal.
If you think you are not using Foursquare, you are probably wrong. Foursquare's Uber location technology powers, Twitter's location tags, Snapchat-based location filters, location sharing in WeChat, some TouchTunes notifications, elements of Apple Maps, and more. Like Foursquare itself said: "If that tells you where, it's probably built on Foursquare."
Although the company's footprint is already quite large, CEO Jeff Glueck said Last year, only Facebook and Google competed with Foursquare in terms of data accuracy, Foursquare's ambitions are even greater. "In the next 10 years, it will be inconceivable to think that our phones, watches, cameras, cars and assistants did not recognize our movements in the past and did not react in a precise and contextual way," Glueck writes. a press release the acquisition
At the present time, how can you use this data to target, among other things, demographic groups and interest groups and to determine the impact of advertising campaigns on store visits? The company said that its understanding of the real-time locations of millions of phones had helped Subway determine the impact of physical coupons on store visits and segment users into custom audience categories based on types of locations that they visit regularly, according to the Foursquare website.
An example on the site shows how Foursquare can know the habits of an individual user. For a man aged 45 to 49, located in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, Foursquare can use data on shops, bars and other buildings regularly visited by humans, which can then be assigned to people, who can then be used by advertisers to target the user. more efficiently. Because Foursquare can tell the man who went to the AT & T stadium between 7 pm and 10:30 pm and I stopped at Harry's Sports Bar last week. Foursquare has awarded him the title of "sports enthusiast". Similarly, Foursquare indicates that this man's visit to Pepper's Grill between 5pm and 6:30 pm – his second trip to the establishment this week, he says. confirms the "casual diner" person.
The man also carries the "Super Saver" label because of his visits to the local dollar store and the Shopper Town warehouse; a "coffee drinker", thanks to a stop at a "local bakery cafe", associated with data showing that "Joe frequents twice a week" and "the owner of a small business", while He visits a store called Dave's Auto Repair every day between 8:30 and 14:30.
Foursquare claims that its acquisition of Placed (which will soon be called "Placed powered by Foursquare") will strengthen Placed's ability to fulfill its mission as a kind of Google Analytics of the offline world by offering marketers a more complete view of upcoming events. millions of users.
Foursquare has not answered any questions regarding the transaction.
. (tagsToTranslate) Foursquare (t) data (t) location (t) Advertisement</pre></pre>
Despite years of lawsuits, counter-prosecutions, lobbying campaigns and unsuccessful attempts at legislation, progress in resolving the dispute has been at best progressive. The same could be said for many cities across the country, as local authorities struggle to cope with the growing popularity of short-term rental platforms such as Airbnb, HomeAway and VRBO in high-tourism areas.
In New York last week, there were two notable breaks in the stalemate. On May 14, Airbnb agreed to provide city officials with partially anonymized host and booking data for more than 17,000 listings. Two days later, a judge ordered Airbnb to provide more detailed, non – anonymous information about dozens of guests and hundreds of guests who had stayed in more than a dozen days. buildings in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens in the last seven years.
In both cases, investigators from the Major's Special Police Bureau use the information to identify hosts and owners who have violated the city's notoriously strict short-term rental laws by converting residences into de facto hotels into listing them on Airbnb.
The city authorities initially assigned Airbnb to appear for non-anonymized data on more than 17,000 registrations in February. Major Bill de Blasio called the movement to force society to "tell clearly what it actually does in this city". The agreement describing the data was signed as a compromise on May 14, according to court records.
In addition to the 17,000 ads identified by the city, Airbnb will also share data on each ad between January 1, 2018 and February 18, 2019, which could potentially violate New York's short-term rental laws. The city prohibits renting an apartment or an entire house for less than 30 days without the owner's presence, making many trips traditionally associated with services like Airbnb, HomeAway and VRBO illegal. Short term rental of an apartment or room is only allowed for up to two people. They must enjoy "free and unhindered access to every room and every exit from the apartment", which means that guests can not circumvent the ban. on the entire apartment rentals by renting three separate private bedrooms at a time.
In the subpoena, the city put forward a set of criteria designed to identify hosts who might have broken the rules. If a list meets these criteria, Airbnb has agreed to provide information such as room type, reservations and host payments. Airbnb will also first provide more information in anonymous form, such as street and apartment number, contact information and bank account information. City officials may ask Annnbb to anonymize if the initial data indicates illegal activity.
An Airbnb spokesman told WIRED that the company had long wanted to work with the city on a regulatory framework and recognized that data sharing was an important aspect. "We hope that our compliance with this subpoena, by providing data consistent with our common struggle against illegal hoteliers, is a first step towards finding such a solution, consistent with the legal rights of all." Airbnb and enabling usable data with the level of accuracy that the city needs, "said the spokesman.
For more information on city conflicts with Airbnb, read our story of march.
Two days after the signing of this agreement, a judge ordered Airbnb to comply with four other subpoenas that she described as "excessive and overly burdensome". The four subpoenas are one of the city's most ambitious demands for Airbnb users' information to be granted to date.
One of them requests specific personal information, including the user's first name and last name, his address, his email address, his telephone number, his employer, his bank details and his address. IP; and a detailed description of some Airbnb listings and their booking history, indicating dozens of hosts and over 500 guests listed in seven buildings spread across Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens at one point in the last four years and half. Another request the same information on all users and lists associated with seven buildings located on West 47th Street in the Hell's Kitchen Manhattan. The contents of the other two subpoenas are sealed.
Airbnb had challenged the subpoena, claiming that it violated users' privacy. The judge disagreed ordered Airbnb to disclose all the data requested by the city.
"This decision signals to the world that if platforms are relevant evidence for an investigation of an illegal activity, they will provide services to the city when they request it," said Christian J. Klossner, Executive Director of the United Nations. ; OSE. He said that he could make this decision, which could set a precedent for other cities looking for information on rentals run by Airbnb.
The judge stated that he would review information relating to a few dozen hosts who had posted ads on Airbnb and which had never been booked, in order to make sure that they had not been booked. they were relevant for handing over the investigation of the city to officials.
An Airbnb spokesman told WIRED that "the recent court decision reinforces Airbnb's concerns about users' privacy by asking the city to re-demonstrate in court to prove the need for privacy. This also reaffirms the importance of working together to find a solution to share the kind of decision-making data the city needs while protecting privacy. "
Chromebooks use an operating system, ChromeOS, built on the Linux core but was originally designed to run only the Google Chrome web browser. This meant that you could only really use web applications. That changed in 2016 when Google announced support for the installation of applications designed for its other operating system based on Linux, Android. Then last year the company unveiled a feature called Crostini this allows users to also install other Linux applications. But Crostini was only supported on a few Chromebooks, such as Pixelbook, Google's flagship product. At the I / O developer conference this week, ZDnet reportsGoogle announced that all new Chromebooks would support Crostini.
It is possible to install Linux on a Chromebook, but it is necessary to replace some of the security features of the device, which could make your Chromebook less secure. It also took a little DIY. With Crostini, Google makes it easy to run Linux applications without compromising your Chromebook.
Why bother? Average users might find it useful to run Linux applications such as the Photoshop Gimp alternative or the Microsoft Office LibreOffice alternative, or play games with Steam. But the real public of Crostini seems to be the programmers, who can use it to write and test both Web applications and Android applications from ChromeOS.
according to Google Crostini Page, the system works by running a simplified version of Linux called Termina in what is called a virtual machine. This is exactly what it looks like: a simulation of a computer that can be used to run operating systems and other hardware. In Termina, you can then run Linux applications in "containers", similar to virtual machines, but virtualizing only parts of an operating system. Basically, you would use Crostini to run another version, or "distribution," of Linux, such as Ubuntu or Fedora from Red Hat, inside a container inside. a virtual machine.
There are some limitations. Running a software inside a container in a virtual machine will go a long way to protect the underlying operating system from malware, but will not protect the data stored in a container. In other words, if your bank's credentials are stored in an application that you run in a container and that container is infected with malware, ChromeOS can not do anything about it.
Extreme subdivision could also break the functionality of some applications. For example, the Crostini page states that users will not be able to access their computer microphones from containers, at least for the moment. You will not be able to run other virtual machines from inside, you will not be able to run Windows within a virtual machine. However, you may be able to run Windows applications using the Windows Wine Emulator.